An R&R means your manuscript was neither accepted nor rejected; rather, it means your paper has a great deal of potential but is not ready to be published quite yet. For scholarly publications, this is typically the first step to publication.

When you receive an R&R, take a look at the reviewers’ comments to see what the main issues are and work toward resolving them. Don’t be afraid to rethink concepts, claims, and structure. Don’t be afraid to rewrite parts of your paper. Remember, revision requires that you re-see your work in hopes of making improvements. It’s not just a matter of tinkering with words or rearranging sentences.

Once you’ve addressed reviewers’ comments and revised your work according to your own thorough self-assessment, it’s time to resubmit your manuscript. Careful, thoughtful revision can ensure that your work stands a better chance of being accepted.